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Accommodation and Myopia

Andrzejewska, W and Baranowska-George T. Accommodation disorders after head injuries and cerebral concussion. Klin Oczna 1969;39(3):431–5.

Ciuffreda KJ. The efficacy of and scientific basis for vision therapy in non-strabismic accommodative and convergence disorders. Optometry 2002;73(12):735-762.

Fox, RS. The rehabilitation of vergence and accommodative dysfunctions in traumatic brain injury.  Brain Inj Prof 2005;2(3):9-14.

Green W, Ciuffreda KJ, Thiagarajan P, Szymanowicz D, Ludlam DP and Kapoor N. Accommodation in mild traumatic brain injury. J Rehab Res Dev 2010;47(3):183-200.

Green W, Ciuffreda KJ, Thiagarajan P, Szymanowicz D, Ludlam DP and Kapoor N. Static and dynamic aspects of accommodation in mild traumatic brain injury: A review. Optometry 2010;81(3):129-36.

Leslie S. Myopia and accommodative insufficiency associated with moderate head trauma. Optom Vis Dev 2009;40(1):25-31.

London R, Wick B and Kirschen D. Post-traumatic pseudomyopia. Optometry 2003;74(2):111-20.

Mazow ML, Finkleman S, Frank J, Jenkins P. Acute accommodative and convergence insufficiency. Tr Am Opthalmol Soc 1989;137:158-73.

Binocularity/Strabismus

Alvarez TL, Kim EH, Vicci VR, Dhar SK, Biswal BB and Barrett AM. Concurrent vision dysfunction in convergence insufficiency with traumatic brain injury. Optom Vis Science 2012;89(12):1740-51.

Alvarez RL, Vicci VR, Alkan Y, Kim EH, et.al. Vision therapy in adults with convergence insufficiency: clinical and functional magnetic resonance imaging measures. Optom Vis Science 2010;87(12):985-1002.

Avilla CW, VonNoorden GK. Post-traumatic fusion deficiency. Transactions 5th International Orthoptic Congress. Ravault A, Lenk M Editors, 1983:143-7.

Baxstrom C. Nonsurgical treatment for esotropia secondary to Arnold-Chiari I malformation: a case report. Optometry 2009;80(9):472-78.

Beck RW. Ocular convergence and accommodation following head injury. Binocular Vision 1987;2(2):93-100.

Beck RW. Ocular deviations after head injury. Am Orthop J 1985;35(103-7.

Birnbaum MH. Noncomitant strabismus: evaluation and management. J Am Opt Assoc 1984;55(10):758-64.

Carroll R and Seaber JR. Acute loss of fusional convergence following head trauma. Am Orthop J 1974;24:57–59.

Ciuffreda KJ, Yadav NK, Han E, Ludlam DP, Peddle A, Hulse P, Walter S and Han J. Distance perception in mild traumatic brain injury(mTBI). Optometry 2012;83(4):127-36.

Cohen AH. Optometric management of binocular dysfunctions secondary to head trauma: case reports. J Am Opt Assoc 1992:63(8);569-75.

Cohen M, Cros Wasswe Z, Banchadske R and Appel A. Convergence insufficiency in brain-injured patients.  Brain Injury 1989;3(2):187–191.

Cook DL. Optometric management of patients with incomitant strabismus. J Behav Optom 2004;15(1):10-16.
 
Cooper J, Ciuffreda KJ, Carniglia PE, Zinn KM and Tannen B. Orthoptic treatment and eye movement recordings in Guillain-Barre syndrome. Neuro-ophthalmology 1995;15(5);249-56.

Doble JE, Feinberg DL, Rosner MS, Rosner AJ.  Identification of binocular vision dysfunction in traumatic brain injury patients and effects of individualized prismatic spectacle lenses in the treatment of postconcussion symptoms: a retrospective analysis. Arch Am Acad Phys Med Rehab 2010;2(4):244-53.

Harrison RJ. Loss of fusional vergence with partial loss of accommodative convergence and accommodation following head injury. Binoc Vision 1987;2(2):93-100.

Hart, CT. Disturbance of fusion following head injury. Proc R Soc Med 1969;62(7):704–06.

Heinz J. Cranial nerve avulsion and other neural injuries in road accidents. Med J Aust 1969;2(25):1246-9.

Johnson, TM. Clinical management of traumatic brain injury induced intermittent exotropia in a primary care practice. J Behav Optom 2011;22(6):144-148.

Kerkoff G, Stogerer E. Treatment of fusional disorders in patients with brain damage. Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd 1994;205(2):70-5.

Krasnow DJ. Fusional convergence loss following head trauma: a case report. Optom Monthly 1982;73:18-19.

Krohel GB, Kristan JW, Simon JW and Barrows NA. Post-traumatic convergence insufficiency. Ann Ophthalmol 1986;18(3):101–4.

Kushner BJ. The benefits, risks and efficacy of strabismus surgery in adults. Optom Vis Sci 2014;91(5):e102-9.

London R, Scott SH. Sensory fusion disruption syndrome. J Am Optom Assoc 1987;58:544-6.

MacLellan AV. A case of recovery from traumatic loss of fusion. Brit Orthoptic J 1974;31:102-106.

Mazow ML, Tang R. Strabismus associated with head and facial trauma. Am Orthoptic J 1982;32:31-35.

Neger RE. The evaluation of diplopia in head trauma. J Head Trauma Rehab 1989;4(2):27-34.

Pratt-Johnson JA. Central disruption of fusional amplitude. Br J Ophthalmol 1973;57:347-50.

Pratt-Johnson JA. Acquired central disruption of fusional amplitude. Ophthalmology 1979;86(12):2140-2142.

Pratt-Johnson JA, Tillson G. The loss of fusion in adults with intractable diplopia. Aust N Z J Ophthalmol 1988;16(2);81-85.

Rambold H, Neumann G and Helmchen C. Vergence deficits in pontine lesions. Neurology 2004;62(10):1850-3.

Rambold H, Sander T, Neumann G and Helmchen C. Palsy of fast and slow vergence by pontine lesions. Neurology 2005:64(2):338-40.

Roy RR. The role of binocular stress in the post-whiplash syndrome. Am J Optom Arch Am Acad Optom 1961;38(11):625-36.

Rutkowski PC, Burian HM. Divergence paralysis following head trauma. 1972;73(5);660-2.

Schneider RC, Johnson FD. Bilateral traumatic abducens palsy. J Neurosurgery 1971;34:33-37.

Soden R and Cohen AH. An optometric approach to the treatment of non-commitant deviation. J Am Optom Assoc 1983;54(5):451-4.

Stanworth A.  Defects of ocular movement and fusion after head injury. Br J Ophthalmol 1974;58(3):266–71.

Sydnor CF, Seaber JH, Buckley EG. Traumatic superior oblique palsies. Ophthalmology 1982;89(2):134-8.

Szymanowicz D, Ciuffreda KJ, Thiagarajan P, Ludlam PS, Green W and Kapoor N. Vergence in mild traumatic brain injury: a pilot study. J Rehabil Res Dev 2012;49(7):1083-1100.

Tamhankar MA, Ying GS and Volpe NJ. Success of prisms in the management of diplopia due to fourth nerve palsy. J Neuro-Ophthal 2011;31:206-9.

Tamhankar MA, Ying GS and Volpe NJ. Prisms are effective in resolving diplopia from incomitant, large and combined strabismus. Eur J Ophthalmol 2012;22(6):890-97.

Tassinari J. Vision therapy for sensory fusion disruption syndrome-two case reports. Optom Vis Dev 2010;41(4):215-21.

Thiagarajan P and Ciuffreda KJ. Effect of oculomotor rehabilitation on vergence responsivity in mild traumatic brain injury. J Rehabil Res Dev 2013;50(9):1223-40.
 
Thiagarajan P, Ciuffreda KJ and Ludlam DP. Vergence dysfunction in mild traumatic brain injury: a review. Ophthal Physiol Optics 2011;31:456-68.

Yang Q, Jurion F and Bucci MP. Six adult cases with a pseudo-vestibular syndrome related to a vergence abnormalities. Neuro-Ophthalmology 2008;32:93-104.

Electrodiagnostic Considerations

Ciuffreda KJ, Yadav NK and Ludlam DP. Effect of binasal occlusion on the visual-evoked potential(VEP) in mild traumatic brian injury. Brain Injury 2013;27(1):41-7.

Curry SH. Event-related potentials as indicants of structural and functional damage in closed head injury. Prog Brain Res 1980;54:507-15.

Du T, Ciuffreda KJ and Kapoor N. Elevated dark adaptation thresholds in traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj. 2005;19(13):1125-38.

Freed S and Hellerstein L. Visual electrodiagnostic findings in mild traumatic brain injury.  Brain Injury 1977;11(1):25-36.

Hudac CM, Kota S, Nedrow JL and Molfese DL. Neural mechanisms underlying neurooptometric rehabilitation following traumatic brain injury. Eye Brain 2012;4:1-12.

Padula WV, et.al.  Visual evoked potentials (VEP) evaluating treatment for post-trauma vision syndrome (PTVS) in patients with traumatic brain injuries (TBI).  Brain Inj 1994;8:125-33. Erratum in: Brain Inj 1994:8(4):393.

Patel R, Ciuffreda KJ, Tannen B and Kapoor N. Elevated coherent motion thresholds in mild traumatic brain injury. Optometry 2011;82(5):284-9.

Rappaport M, Herrero-Backe C, Winterfield K, Rappaport ML, Hemmerle AV. Visual evoked potential pattern abnormalities and disability in severe traumatically brain-injured patients. J Head Trauma Rehab 1989;4(2):45-52.

Sarno S, Erasmus LP, Lippert G, Frey M, et al. Electrophysiological correlates of visual impairments after traumatic brain injury.  Vis Research 2000;40:3029-3038.

Yadav NK, Ludlam DP and Ciuffreda KJ. Effect of different stimulus configurations on the visual evoked potential(VEP). Doc Ophthalmol 2012;124(3):177-96.

Yang Q, Jurion F and Bucci MP. Six adult cases with a pseudo-vestibular syndrome related to a vergence abnormalities. Neuro-Ophthalmology 2008;32:93-104.

General Medical Conditions of Acquired Brain Injury

Amen DG, Wu JC, et.al. Reversing brain damage in former NFL players: implications for traumatic brain injury and substance abuse rehabilitation. J Psychoactive Drugs 2011;43(1):1-5.

Bennett T. Neuropsychological aspects of complex partial seizures: diagnostic and treatment issues. Int J Clin Neuropsych 1987;10:41-44.

Bennett T. Post-traumatic epilepsy: its nature and implications for head injury recovery. 1987;Cogn Rehab 1987;5(5):14-18.

Bergsneider M, Hovda DA, Shalmon E, Kelly DF. Cerebral hyperglycolysis following severe traumatic brain injury in humans: a positron emission tomography study. J Neurosurg 1997;86:241-51.

Bougduk N. Post whiplash syndrome. Austr Family Physician 1994;23:2303-7.

Brain Injury Association of America Position Paper. Early vs. Late Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury 2009: http://www.biausa.org/Default.aspx?PageID=3597137&A=SearchResult&SearchID=7892404&ObjectID=3597137&ObjectType=1

Brault JR, Wheeler Jb, Siegmund GP, Brault EJ. Clinical response of human subjects to rear-end automobile collisions. Arch Phys Med Rehab 1998;79:72-80.

Burke JP, Orton HP, West J, Strachan IM. Whiplash and its effect on the visual system. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 1992;230(4):335-9.

Collins M. In the midst of a paradigm shift-data based management of sports related concussions. Brain Inj Prof 2007;4(4):8-13.

Cope DN and Hall K. Head injury rehabilitation: benefit of early intervention. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1982;63:433-7.

Dixon CE, Taft WC, Hayes RL. Mechanisms of mild traumatic brain injury. J Head Trauma Rehab 1993;8(1):1-12.

Evans RW. The postconcussion syndrome and sequelae of mild head injury. Neurol Clin 1992;10(4):815-47.

Evans RW, Evans RI, Sharp MJ. The physician survey on the post concussion and whiplash syndromes. Headache 1994;34(5):268-74.

Ford NL, Rosenfeld JV. Mild traumatic brain injury and bomb blast: stress, injury or both? ADF Health 2008;9:18-23.
 
Gaetz M. The neurophysiology of brain injury. Clin Neurophysiol 2004;115(1):4-18.

Gennarelli TA, Segawa H, Wald U, Czernicki Z. Physiological response to angular acceleration of the head. In: Head Injury: Basic and Clinical Aspects. Raven Press New York 1982 :129-140.

Greve MW and Zink BJ. Pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury. Mt Sinai J Med 2009;76(2):97-104.

Grosswasser Z, Cohen M and Blankstein E. Polytrauma associated with traumatic brain injury: incidence, nature and impact on rehabilitation outcome. Brain Inj 1990;4(2):161-6.

Gurdjian ES, Gurdjian E. Reevaluation of the biomechanics of blunt impact injury of the head. Surg Gyn Obstetrics 1975;140:845-50.

Hagstrom Y and Carlsson J. Prolonged functional impairments after whiplash injury. Scand J Rehab Med 1996;28(3):139-46.

Harch PG and Neubauer RA. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in global cerebral ischemia/anoxia and coma. In: Textbook of Hyperbaric Medicine, Jain KK 1999.

Karni A. Adult cortical plasticity and reorganization. Science Med 1997;4(1):24-33.

Kennedy JE, Jaffee MS, Leskin GA, et.al. Posttraumatic stress disorder-like symptoms and mild traumatic brain injury. J Rehabil Res Dev 2007;44(7):895-920.

Kleim JA and Jones TA. Principles of experience-dependent neural plasticity: implications for rehabilitation after brain injury. J Speech Lang Hear Res 2008;51(1):S225-239.
 
Maruta J, Lee SW, Jacobs EF and Ghajar J. A unified science of concussion. Ann NY Acad Sci 2010;1208:58-66.

Maulden SA, Gassaway J, et.al. Timing of initiation of rehabilitation after stroke. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2005;86(suppl 2):S34-39.

Meythaler JM, Peduzzi JD, Eleftheriouw E and Novack TA. Current concepts: diffuse axonal injury-associated traumatic brain injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82(10):1461-71.

Ommaya AK, Faas F, Yarnell P. Whiplash injury and brain damage. JAMA 1968;204(4):285-9.

Park E, Bell JD, Baker AJ. Traumatic brain injury; can the consequences be stopped? Canadian Med Assoc J 2008;178(9):1163-70.

Pfenninger EG, Reith A, Breitig, D, Grunert A, Ahnefeld FW. Early changes of intracranial pressure, perfusion pressure and blood flow after acute head injury. J Neurosurg 1989;70:774-779.

Povlishock JT, Erb DE, Astruc J. Axonal response to traumatic brain injury: reactive axonal change, deafferentiation and neuroplasticity. J Neurotrauma 1992;9(1):S189-S200.

Ray CT and Wolf SL. Review of intrinsic factors related to fall risk in individuals with visual impairments. J Rehab Res Dev 2008;45(8):1117-24.

Reding MJ and Potes E. Rehabilitation outcome following initial unilateral hemispheric stroke: life table analysis. Stroke 1988:19(11):1354-8.

Rubin AM, et al. Postural stability following mild head or whiplash injuries. Am J Otol 1995;16(2):216-21.

Swenson RS. Minor head injury. J Neuromusculoskeletal System 1997;4:133-43.

Thurmann D, Alverson C, Dunn K, Guerro J, Sniezek J. Traumatic brain injury in the United States: a public health perspective. J Head Trauma Rehab 1999;14(6):602-15.

Yarnell PR, Rossie GV. Minor whiplash head injury with major debilitation. Brain Inj 1988;2(3):255-258.

Zasler ND. Mild traumatic brain injury: medical assessment and intervention. J Head Trauma Rehab 1993;8(3):13-29.

General Visual Considerations of Acquired Brain Injury

Alexander PK. The effects of brain damage on visual functioning in children. J of Vis Impair Blind 1990;84(7):372-6.

Anderson DP and Ford RM. Visual abnormalities after severe head injuries. Can J Surg 1980;23(2):163-5.

Bulson R, Jun W and Hayes J. Visual symptomatology and referral patterns for operation Iraqi freedom and operation enduring freedom veterans with traumatic brain injury. J Rehabil Res Dev 2012;49(7):1075-82.

Capo-Aponte JE, Urosevich TG, et.al. Visual dysfunctions and symptoms during the subacute stage of blast-induced mild traumatic brain injury. Military Medicine 2012;177(7):804-13.
 
Ciuffreda KJ and Ludlam DP. Conceptual model of optometric vision care in mild traumatic brain injury. J Behav Optom 2011;22(1);10-12.

Ciuffreda KJ and Ludlam DP. Objective diagnostic and interventional vision test protocol for the mild traumatic brain injury population. Optometry 2011;82(6):337-9.

Cockerham GC, et.al. Eye and visual function in traumatic brain injury. J Rehabil Res Dev 2009;46(6):811-18.

Cohen AH. Optometry: The invisible member of the rehabilitation team J Am Optom Assoc 1992;63(8):529-536.

Cohen AH, Rein LD.  The effect of head trauma on the visual system: the doctor of optometry as a member of the rehabilitation team. J Am Optom Assoc 1992:63(8);530-6.

Cohen AH, Soden R. An optometric approach to the rehabilitation of the stroke patient. J Am Optom Assoc 1981;52(10):795-800.

Craig S, Kapoor N, et.al. Profile of selected aspects of visually symptomatic individuals with acquired brain injury: a retrospective study. J Behav Optom 2008;19:1-10.

Elisevich KV, Ford RM, Anderson DP, Stratford JG. Visual abnormalities with multiple trauma. Surg Neurol 1984;22:565-75.

Falk, Naomi S. and Aksionoff, Elizabeth B. The primary care optometric evaluation of the traumatic brain injury patient. J Am Optom Assoc 1992;63(8):547-53.

Freeman PB and Jose RT. Enhancing decreased sight of patients with traumatic brain injury. J Opt Vis Dev1996;6(3):203-12.

Gianutsos R, Perlin R, Mazerolle KA and Trem N. Rehabilitative optometric services for persons emerging from coma. J Head Trauma Rehab 1989:4(2):17-25.

Gianutsos R and Ramsey G. Enabling rehabilitation optometrists to help survivors of acquired brain injury. Journal Vision Rehabilitation 1988;2(1):37-58.

Gianutsos R, Ramsey G and Perlin RR. Rehabilitative optometric services for survivors of acquired brain injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1988;69(8):573-8.

Goddard S.  The role of primitive survival reflexes in the development of the visual system  J Behav Optom 1995;6(2):31-35.

Goodrich L, Kirby J, et al. Visual function in patients of a polytrauma rehabilitation center: a descriptive study. J Rehab Research Develop 2007;44;929-36.

Goodrich GL, Martinsen GL, et.al. Development of a mild traumatic brain injury-specific screening protocol: a Delphi study. J Rehab Res Dev 2013;50(6):757-768.

Gutting A. The role of occupational therapy in rehabilitating stroke patients. J Am Opt Assoc 1992;63(8):595-8.

Hellerstein LF, Freed S and Maples WC.  Vision profile of patients with mild brain injury  J Am Optom Assoc 1995;66:634-639.

Hellerstein L and Freed S. Rehabilitative optometric management of traumatic brain injury patient. J Behav Optom 1994;5(6):143-8.

Horwich H, Kasner D. The effect of whiplash injuries on ocular functions. South Med J 1962;55:69-71.

Huang JC.  Neuroplasticity as a proposed mechanism for the efficacy of optometric vision therapy and rehabilitation  J Behav Optom 2009;20(4):95-100.

Iskander D, Cohen AH, Kapoor N. Optometric management of a patient with parietal lobe injury. J Behav Optom 2010;21(6):143-9.

Jackson ML and Ferencz J. Charles Bonnet syndrome: visual loss and hallucinations. CMAJ 2009;181(3-4):175-6.

Kapoor N and Ciuffreda KJ. Vision disturbances following traumatic brain injury.
Curr Treat Options Neurol 2002;4(4):271-280.

Kadet TS and Bodkin RE. Neuro-Optometry and the United States legal system. Optom Vis Dev 2009;40(1):32-36.

Kerkhoff, G. Neurovisual rehabilitation: recent developments and future directions. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2000;68:691-706.

Kowal L. Ophthalmic manifestations of head injury. Aust NZ J Ophthalmol, 1992, 20:35-40.

Krantz JL. Psychosocial aspects of vision loss associated with head trauma. J Am Optom Assoc 1992;63(8):589-91.

Lorenzana IJ and Frantz K. Optometric Co-management of a traumatic brain injury patient.  J Optom Vis Devel 2003;34(3):151-155.

Lowell L, Cohen AH, Kapoor N. Optometric management of visual sequelae of frontal lobe-related traumatic brain injuries. J Behav Optom 2010;21(1):3-11.

Mandese M. Oculo-visual evaluation of the patient with traumatic brain injury. Optom Vis Dev 2009;40(1);37-44.

Maino D.  Neuroplasticity:  Teaching an old brain new tricks.  Rev Optom 2009;46(1):62-64,66-70.

McVeigh, FL. Traumatic brain injury- what is the optometrist's role? Rev Optom 2008;145(4):73-77.

Nelms AC. New visions-collaboration between OTs and optometrists can make a difference in treating brain injury. OT Practice 2000;31:15-8.

Padula WV. Neuro-optometric rehabilitation for persons with a TBI or CVA. J Optom Vis Devel 1992;23:4-8.
 
Padula WV, Shapiro JB, Jasin B. Head injury causing post trauma vision syndrome. NE J Optom 1988;41(2):16-21.

Politzer T. Visual disturbances in parkinson's disease and intervention.  CNI Review  Fall 2005;10-

Richman J, Baglieri AM, Cho O. Tinted lenses in the treatment of visual stress in a patient with traumatic brain injury- a case report. J Behav Optom 2007;18(6):149-53.

Rowe F, et.al. Symptoms of stroke-related visual impairment. Strabismus 2013;21(2):150-4.

Sabates NR, Gonce MA, Farris BK. Neuro-ophthalmological findings in closed head injury. J Clin Neuro-Ophthalmol 1991;11(4):273-7.

Schlageter K, Gray B, Hall K, Shaw R, Sammet R. Incidence of treatment of visual dysfunction in traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury 1993;7(5):439-448.

Shute RH, Woodhouse JM. Visual fitness to drive after stroke or head injury. Ophthal Physiol Opt 1990;10(4):327-32.

Steinman SB, Steinman BA. Applications of visual attention to vision therapy and rehabilitation. J Behav Optom 2007;18(5):121-6.

Stelmack J. Measuring outcomes of neuro-optometric care in traumatic brain injury. J Behav Optom 2007;18(3):67-71.

Strano CM. Effects of visual deficits on the ability to drive in traumatically brain-injured population. J Head Trauma Rehab 1989;4(2):35-43.

Suchoff IB, Kapoor N, Waxman R, Ference W.  The occurrence of ocular and visual dysfunctions in an acquired brain-injured patient sample. J Am Optom Assoc. 1999;70(5):301-8.

Suter PS.  A quick start in post-acute vision rehabilitation in brain injury.  J Optom Vis Dev 1999;30:73-82.

Tierney, DW. Visual dysfunction in closed head injury. J Am Optom Assoc 1988;59(8):614-22.

Townsend, JC. Traumatic brain injury a new challenge for optometry, neuro-optometric rehabilitation and our nation. J Behav Optom 2007;18(3):63-66.

Trachtman JN. Post-traumatic stress disorder and vision. Optometry 2010;81(5):240-52.

VanRoekel RC. Military optometry in the care of traumatic brain injury patients. J Behav Optom 2007;18(3):60-61.

Vogel, Mark S. An overview of head trauma for the primary care practitioner-Part I-etiology, diagnosis, and consequences of head trauma. J Am Optom Assoc 1992;63(8):537-41.

Vogel, Mark S. An overview of head trauma for the primary care practitioner-Part II-ocular damage associated with head trauma. J Am Optom Assoc 1992;63(8):542-6.

Wainapel SF. Vision rehabilitation: an overlooked subject in physiatric training and practice. Am J Phys Med Rehab 1995;74:313-314.

Weiss B and Soden R. Head trauma and low vision: clinical modifications for diagnosis and prescription. J Am Optom Assoc 1992;63(8):559-63.

Wenberg S, Thomas JA. The role of vision in the rehabilitation of the musculoskeletal system: part 1. J Bodywork Movement Therapies 2000;4(4):242-5.

Wenberg S, Thomas JA. Post traumatic vision syndrome and the locomotor system: part 2: screening and collaborative care. J Bodywork Movement Therapies 2001;5(1):2-10.

Zelinsky DG. Neuro-optometric diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation following traumatic brain injuries: a brief overview. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am 2007;18(1):87-107.

Zelinsky DG. Brain injury rehabilitation: cortical and subcortical interfacing via retinal pathways. Physical Med Rehab 2010;2(9):852-57.

Zost M.  Diagnosis and management of visual dysfunction in cerebral injury.  In:  Maino  D ed.  Diagnosis and management of special populations.  St Louis: CV Mosby, 1995 p. 75-134.

Military and Polytrauma Units

Brahm KD, Wilgenburg HM, Kirby J, Ingalla S, Chang C and Goodrich GL. Visual impairment and dysfunction in combat-injured service members with traumatic brain injury. Optom Vis Sci 2009;86(7):817-825.

Capo-Aponte JE, Tarbett AK, et.al. Effectiveness of computerized oculomotor vision screening in a military population: pilot study. J Rehabil Res Dev 2012;49(9):1377-98.

Capo-Aponte JE, Urosevich TG, et.al. Visual dysfunctions and symptoms during the subacute stage of blast-induced mild traumatic brain injury. Military Medicine 2012;177(7):804-13.

Goodrich GL, Flyg HM, et.al. Mechanisms of TBI and visual consequences in military and veteran populations. Optom Vis Sci 2013;90(2):105-12.

Goodrich GL, Kirby J, Cockerham G, et.al. Visual function in patients of a polytrauma rehabilitation center: a descriptive study. J Rehab Res Dev 2007;44(7):929-36.

Magone MT, Kwon E and Shin SJ. Chronic visual dysfunction after blast-induced mild traumatic brain injury. J Rehab Res Dev 2014;51(1):71-80.

Stelmack JA, Frith T, Koevering DV, Rinne S and Stelmack TR. Visual function in patients followed at a Veterans affairs polytrauma network site: an electronic medical record review. Optometry 2009;80(8):419-424.

Warden D. Mild TBI during the Iraq and Afghanistan wars. J Head Trauma Rehabil 2006;21(5):398-402.

Neural Mechanisms of Acquired Brain Injuries

Dixon CE, Taft WC and Hayes RL. Mechanisms of mild traumatic brain injury. J Head Trauma Rehabil 1993;8(3):1-12.

Gaetz M. The neurophysiology of brain injury. Clinical Neurophysiology 2004;115:4-18.

Hudac CM, Kota S, Nedrow JL and Molfese DL. Neural mechanisms underlying neurooptometric rehabilitation following traumatic brain injury. Eye Brain 2012;4:1-12.

Park E, Bell JD and Baker AJ. Traumatic brain injury: can the consequences be stopped? Can Med Assoc J 2008;178(9):1163-70.

Raji CA, Tarzwell R, et.al. Clinical utility of SPECT neuroimaging in the diagnosis and treatment of traumatic brain injury: a systematic review. PLOS One 2014;9(3):e91088.

Saunders GH and Echt KV. Blast exposure and dual sensory impairment: an evidenced review and integrated rehabilitation approach. J Rehabil Res Dev 49(7):1043-58.

Zelinsky D. fMRI analysis of three concurrent processing pathways. http://www.intechopen.com/books/functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-advanced-neuroimaging-applications/fmri-analysis-of-three-concurrent-processing-pathways  Last accessed: January 19, 2013.

Zhou Y and Lui Y. Changes in brain organization after TBI: evidence from functional MRI findings. Neurology 2013;80(20):1822-23.

Ocular Disease in Acquired Brain Injuries

Beckingsale AB, Rosenthal AR. Early fundus fluorescein angiographic findings and sequelae in traumatic retinopathy-case report. Br J Ophthalmol 1983;67(2):119-23.

Cockerham GC, Goodrich GL, Weichel ED, Orcutt JC, Rizzo JF, Bower KS and Schuchard RA. Eye and visual function in traumatic brain injury. J Rehab Res Dev 2009;46(6):811-8.
 
Frenkel RE, Spoor TC. Diagnosis and management of traumatic optic neuropathies. Adv Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 1987;6:71-90.

Garfinkle AM, Danys IR, Nicolle DA, Austin RT. Terson's syndrome: a reversible cause of blindness following subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Neurosurg 1992;76(5):766-71.

Haslett RS, Duvall-Young J, McGalliard JN. Traumatic retinal angiopathy and seat belts: pathogenesis of whiplash injury. Eye 1994;8:615-7.

Hau S, Ehrlich, Binstead K, et.al.. An evaluation of optometrist's ability to correctly identify and manage patients with ocular disease in the accident and emergency department of an eye hospital. Br J Ophthalmol 2007;91:437-440.

Kelley JS, Hoover RE. Whiplash maculopathy. Arch Ophthalmol 1978;96:834-5.

Rutner D, Kapoor N, Ciuffreda KJ, Craig S, et al. Occurrence of ocular disease in traumatic brain injury in a selected sample: a retrospective analysis. Brain Inj 2006;20(10):1079-86.

Rutner D, Kapoor N, Ciuffreda KJ, Suchoff IB, et al. Frequency of occurrence of ocular disease in symptomatic individuals with acquired brain injury. J Behav Optom 2007;18(2):31-36.

Sastry SM, Copeland RA, Mezghebe H, Siram SM. Retinal hemorrhage secondary to airbag-related ocular trauma. J Trauma 1995;38(4):582.

Wolin MJ, Lavin P  Spontaneous visual recovery from traumatic optic neuropathy after blunt head injury.  Am J Ophthalmol 1990;109:430-435.

Yamamoto LG, Bard RD. Transient blindness following mild head trauma. Criteria for a benign outcome. J Clin Pediatrics 1988;27(10):479-83.

Ocular Motor Considerations

Baker  RS, Epstein AV.  Ocular motor abnormalities from head trauma. Surv Ophthalmol 1991; 35:245-267.

Beck RW, Meckler RJ. Internuclear ophthalmoplegia after head injury. Ann Ophthalmol 1981;13(6):671-5.

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Ciuffreda KJ, Han Y, Kapoor N. Oculomotor fixation and its rehabilitation in acquired brain injury. Invest Ophthal Vis Sci 2004;45(5):2325.

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Ciuffreda KJ, Ludlam D, Thiagarajan P. Oculomotor diagnostic protocol for the mTBI population. Optometry 2011;82(2):61-3.

Ciuffreda KJ, Rutner R, Kapoor N, Suchoff IB, Craig S, Han ME. Vision therapy for oculomotor dysfunctions in acquired brain injury: a retrospective analysis. Optometry 2008;79(1):18-22.

Ciuffreda KJ, Suchoff IB, Marrone M, et al. Oculomotor rehabilitation in traumatic brain-injured patients. J Behav Optom 1996; 7(2): 31-8.

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Kapoor N, Ciuffreda KJ, Han Y. Oculomotor rehabilitation in acquired brain injury: a case series. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2004;85(10):1667-1678.

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Ron S, Najenson T, Hary D and Pryworkin W. Eye movements in brain damaged patients. Scand J Rehab Med 1978;10:39-44.

Simkovich D, Ciuffreda KJ, Tannen B. Successful oculomotor auditory feedback therapy in an exotrope with acquired brain injury. J Behav Optom 2006;17(4):93-6.

Szymanowicz D, Ciuffreda KJ, Thiagarajan P, Ludlam DP, Green W and Kapoor N. Vergence in mild traumatic brain injury: a pilot study. J Rehab Res Dev 2012;49(7):1083-1100.

Photosensitivity and Migraines

Beasley IG and Davies LN. Susceptibility to pattern glare following stroke. J Neurol 2012;259(9):1832-9.

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Posture and Mobility/Egocentric Localization/Visual Midline Shift Syndrome

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Padula WV, Nelson CA, DeBenabib R, et.al. Modifying postural adaptation following a CVA through prismatic shift of visuo-spatial egocenter. Brain Injury 2009;23(6):566-76.

Reading

Han Y, Ciuffreda KJ and Kapoor N. Reading-related oculomotor testing and training protocols for acquired brain injury in humans. Brain Res Protoc 2004;14(1):1-12.

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Vestibular–Balance-Dizziness-Vertigo

Anderson DC et al.  The dizzy patient: a review of etiology, differential diagnosis, and management.  J Am Optom Assoc 1995;66:545-558.

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Suchoff IB, Ciuffreda KJ, and Kapoor N (editors) Visual and vestibular consequences of acquired brain injury. Optometric Extension Program Foundation Press, Santa Ana, CA. 2001

Weiss LM.  Visual-Vestibular Interaction in the Acquired Brain Injured Patient.  J Optom Vis Dev 2002;33:33-41.

Winkler PA, Ciuffreda KJ. Ocular fixation, vestibular dysfunction and visual motion hypersensitivity. Optometry  2009;80(9);502-12.

Visual Field Considerations – Blindsight/Hemianiopsia/ Visual Neglect/Unilateral Spatial Inattention

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Stoerig P, Cowy A. Blindsight. Current Biology 2007;17(19):R822-4.
 
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Suchoff IB, Ciuffreda KJ. A primer for the optometric management of unilateral spatial inattention. Optometry. 2004 May;75(5):305-18.

Suchoff IB, Kapoor N, Ciuffreda KJ, Rutner D, et al. The frequency of occurrence, types and characteristics of visual field defecdts in acquired brain injury: a retrospective analysis. Optometry 2008;79(5):259-65.

Super S, Editor. Intention, attention, inattention and neglect. Optometric Extension Program Foundation Press, Santa Ana, CA. 2006.

Suter PS. Peripheral visual field loss and visual neglect-diagnosis and treatment. J Behav Optom 2007;18(3):78-83.

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Weinberg J, et al. Training sensory awareness and spatial organization in people with right brain damage. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1979;60(11):491-496.

Visual Information Processing / Visual Perception / Neuropsychological

Aksionoff EB, Falk NS.  The differential diagnosis of perceptual deficits in traumatic brain injury patients.  J Am Optom Assoc 1992, 63:554-8.

Barlow-Ogden K and Poynter W. Mild traumatic brain injury and posttraumatic stress disorder: investigation of visual attention in operation Iraqi freedom/operation enduring freedom veterans. J Rehabil Res Dev 2012;49(7):1101-14.

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Gianutsos R, Suchoff IB.  Neuropsychological consequences of mild brain injury and optometric implications.  J Behav Optom 1998;9(1):3-6.

Gianutsos R, Grynbaum BB. Helping brain-injured people to contend with hidden cognitive deficits. Int Rehabil Med 1983;5(1):37-40

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Parente R, Anderson-Parente JK, Shaw B. Retraining the mind's eye. J Head Trauma Rehab 1989;4(2):53-62.

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Steinman SB and Steinman BA. Applications of visual attention and vision therapy and rehabilitation. J Behav Opt 2007;18(5):121-26.

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Uzzell BP, Obrist WD, Dolinskas CA, Langfitt TW. Relation of visual field defects to neuropsychological outcome after closed head injury. Acta Neurochir 1987;86(1-2):18-24.

Warren M. A hierarchical model for evaluation and treatment of visual perceptual dysfunction in adult acquired brain injury, part 1. Am J Occup Ther 1993;47(1):42-54.

Warren M. A hierarchical model for evaluation and treatment of visual perceptual dysfunction in adult acquired brain injury, part 2. Am J Occup Ther 1993;47(1):55-66.

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Zoltan. B. Visual, visual perceptual and perceptual-motor defects in brain – injured adults.  In Kraft GH, Berrol S (eds). North Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of America.  Philadelphia WB Saunders: 1992

Visual Rehabilitation for ABI-General-also see specific section

Aksionoff, Elizabeth B. and Falk, Naomi S. Optometric Therapy for the Left Brain Injured Patient. J. Am Optom Assn 1992;63:564-8.

Agarwal NK, Nadeem B, Shah SB, Hung GK, Ciuffreda KJ. Effects of video based training on traumatic brain injury patients. J Behav Optom 2010;21(5):125-9.

Beasley IG and Davies LN. Visual stress symptoms secondary to stroke alleviated with spectral filters and precision tinted ophthalmic lenses: a case report. Clin Exp Optom 2013;96(1):117-20

Berne SA. Visual therapy for the traumatic brain injured. J Optom Vis Dev 1990;21:13-16.

Chang A, Cohen AH and Kapoor N. Top-down visual framework for optometric vision therapy for those with traumatic brain injury. Optom Vis Perf 2013;1(2):48-53.

Ciuffreda KJ. The efficacy of and scientific basis for vision therapy in non-strabismic accommodative and convergence disorders. Optometry 2002;73:735-62.

Cohen AH. Optometric rehabilitative therapy. In: Press LJ, ed. Applied Concepts in Vision Therapy. St.Louis:Mosby 1997:278-86.

Georgis JF. Ch. 27-Treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning with yoked prism lenses. In: Penney DG Ed. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning. CRC Press, NY 619-641.
 
Gottlieb R. Mild traumatic brain injury, visual fields and light therapy. April 2004:7-11.

Gottlieb R. Functional visual fields following brain injury. J Optom Phototherapy March 2005:37-45.

Gottlieb R and Wallace L.  Syntonic Phototherapy.  J Behav Optom 2001;12(2):31-38.

Hellerstein LF, Freed S. Rehabilitative optometric management of a traumatic brain injury patient. J Behav Optom 1994;5(6):143-148.

Hillier CG.  Vision rehabilitation following acquired brain injury: a case series.  Brain Inj Professional 2005;2(3):29-31.

Hinrichs C. Vision rehabilitation for the multiply challenged child. J Optom Vis Dev 1992;23(2):30-32.
 
Hudac CM, Kota S, Nedrow JL and Molfese DL. Neural mechanisms underlying neurooptometric rehabilitation following traumatic brain injury. Eye Brain 2012;4:1-12.

Lowell L, Cohen AH, Kapoor N. Optometric management of visual sequelae of frontal lobe related traumatic brain injury. J Behav Optom 2010;21(1):3-11.

Ludlam WM.  Rehabilitation of traumatic brain injury with associated visual dysfunction – a case report.  Neurorehab 1996;6(3):183-92.

Nixon A. Shedding light on stroke treatment. J Optom Phototherapy March 2009:23-26.

Politzer TA. Case studies of a new approach using partial and selective occlusion for the clinical treatment of diplopia. Neurorehab 1996;6(3):213-7.

Politzer TA, Cilo M and Weintraub A. A new prism use for treatment of cyclo-deviation in trochlear nerve injury. Neurorehab 2010;27(3):255-59.

Proctor A. Traumatic brain injury and binasal occlusion. Optom Vis Dev 2009;40(1):45-50.

Richman JE, Baglieri AM, Cho O. Tinted lenses in the treatment of visual stress in a patient with a traumatic brain injury. J Behav Optom 2007;18(6):149-53.

Romsdahl E. Wernicke's encephalopathy: the role of visual rehabilitation and related considerations-a case report. J Behav Optom 2012;23(5-6):149-51.

Schaadt AK, Schmidt L, et.al. Perceptual relearning of binocular fusion after hypoxic brain damage: four controlled single-case treatment studies. Neuropsych 2014 28(3):382-7.

Schaadt AK, Schmidt L, et.al. Perceptual relearning of binocular fusion and stereoacuity after brain injury. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2013;published online 27 December.

Suchoff IB, Gianutsos R. Rehabilitative optometric interventions for the adult with acquired brain injury. In: Grabois M, Garrison SJ, Hart KA, et al., eds. Physical medicine and rehabilitation: the complete approach. Malden, MA: Blackwell Science, 2000:608-21.

Thiagarajan P, Ciuffreda KJ, Capo-Aponte JE, Ludlam DP and Kapoor N. Oculomotor rehabilitation for reading in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI): an integrative approach. Neurorehab 2014;34(1):129-46.

Wallace L.  Syntonics and head trauma.  J Optom Phototherapy December 1993:8-9.

Wallace L. Syntonics: Optometric color therapy for the treatment of acquired brain injuries. J Optom Phototherapy April 2001:10-13.

Wallace L.  Syntonics: optometric color therapy for treatment of brain trauma.  J Optom Vis Devel  2003;34(3):146-150.

Wallace L. Syntonics: optometric color therapy for the treatment of acquired brain injury. J Optom Phototherapy December 2006:20-24.

Compiled by Curtis Baxstrom,OD,FNORA
I'd like to acknowledge this project has been supported with input from Ken Ciuffreda, Lynn Hellerstein,OD and John Thomas,OD
Last updated May 1, 2014